Real-life Sci-Fi World #2: the Hot Eyeball planet

Welcome to Real-life Sci-fi worlds.  We use science to explore life-bearing worlds that are good settings for science fiction.  Up today: the hot Eyeball planet.

Planets very close to their stars are too hot for life, right?  Well, not always!

Take the Earth and move it closer and closer to the Sun.  It gets hotter and hotter and … then it gets fried.  What I mean by fried is that the greenhouse effect in Earth’s atmosphere crosses a point of no return.  At this point, Earth gets so hot that the oceans evaporate.  I guess boiled might be a better description than fried.  Over time, Earth’s water is lost to space.  Earth eventually turns into a hellhole like Venus.  Not a happy story.

But it doesn’t have to be like that!  There exists another solution: the hot Eyeball planet.


Imagine an Earth-like planet orbiting close to its star.  It doesn’t matter exactly how close, let’s just say that it is close enough that it should be fried.

Before we talk about the planet’s climate, there is something important about this planet that is different than Earth: how the planet spins.  Earth spins spins pretty fast: once a day.  But its spin axis — its “obliquity” — is tilted.

Earth's spin axis is tilted with respect to its orbit.  This is called the obliquity.  Earth's obliquity of about 23 degrees is why we have seasons!  From
Earth’s spin axis is tilted with respect to its orbit. This is called the obliquity. Earth’s obliquity of about 23 degrees is why we have seasons! From Wikipedia.

A planet close to its star feels strong tides from its star.  Like the tides Earth feels from the Moon, but much stronger.  Strong tides change how a planet spins.  Tides drive the planet’s obliquity to zero, so the planet’s equator is perfectly lined up with its orbit.  Tides also force the planet to always show the same side to the star.  It looks like this, except with the star in the middle and the planet orbiting the star:

A moon that is tidally "locked" to its planet.  As the moon orbits the planet, it always shows the same face.  People on the planet can never see the green side of the moon.  From Wikipedia Commons (
A moon that is tidally “locked” to its planet. As the moon orbits the planet, it always shows the same face. People on the planet can never see the green side of the moon. From Wikipedia Commons

So our possibly-fried planet always shows the same face to the star.  The planet is hot on its permanent day side and cold on its permanent night side. We’re talking blazing hot on the day side and deathly cold on the night side.  Frying pan and deep freezer.

What happens to the planet’s water?  It is heated up and boiled on the day side, and frozen on the night side.  But winds transport the water vapor from the day side to the night side.  Water that boils away on the day side can end up as ice on the night side.  This can create a cold trap: all of the planet’s water can be locked up in a giant layer of ice on the permanent night side.  Dry day side, ice-covered night side.

But the story doesn’t end there.  When a layer of ice gets thick enough, its bottom layer melts.  This causes the ice to flow.  This is how glaciers behave.

So our planet’s thick night side ice cap should spread out and slowly flow toward the day side.  There may be a trickle of water that flows into starlight to be evaporated all over again.  There are characteristic wind patterns that pile clouds up in a specific region on the night side (to the East of the anti-stellar point). Here is a cartoon of what this looks like:

A hot Eyeball planet.  The star is off the image to the left.  The left side of the planet is in permanent daylight.  The right side is in permanent darkness and is covered with a giant ice cap.  Image by Jeremy Leconte, from this paper.  Note that characteristic wind patterns pile up clouds in a specific region on the night side (to the East of the right-most [anti-stellar] point).

The name Eyeball planet comes from the planet’s non-uniform appearance.  The night side is icy, the day side is rocky.  The sub-stellar point, the place on the planet where the star is always directly overhead, is really hot.  If the planet is close enough to the star, rocks could even melt at the sub-stellar point.  That would be the pupil.  Rivers that flow from the night side to eventually evaporate on the day side might even look like veins.

The hot part of the name is a hint that there is another kind of eyeball planet (the cold kind of course).  We’ll get to that one later.


Where on a hot Eyeball planet would you want to live?  It’s a classic Goldilocks story.  The day side is roasting and dry.  The night side is frigid and icy.  In between, it’s just right!  The sweet spot — what I call the “ring of life” — is at the “terminator” (not the movie), the boundary between night and day.

Here is a nice artist’s view of a hot Eyeball planet:

Artist's conception of a hot Eyeball planet.  The permanent day side is sun-baked and dry.  The permanent night side is covered with ice.  In between lies a thin ring of
Artist’s conception of a hot Eyeball planet. The permanent day side is sun-baked and dry. The permanent night side is covered with ice. In between lies a thin habitat: the ring of life.  Image credit: Beau.TheConsortium (see this article).

The ring of life is bounded by deserts on one side and ice on the other.  There is a constant flow of water from the night to the day side.  In other words, a series of rivers, all flowing in the same direction. The Sun is fixed in the sky right at the horizon, and the area is in permanent light.  Conditions are pretty much the same across the ring of life, from the equator to the poles.

To speculate, I can imagine vegetation following the rivers onto the day side until they dry up.  Different ecosystems interspersed along the way.  I also wonder if there would be mountains at the edge of the ice sheets, since the ice-covered continents would be heavily weighed down (this is called isostasy).


How many hot Eyeball planets exist in our Galaxy?  Let’s see. About half of all stars like the Sun have a planet that might fit the bill!  These planets are usually called hot super-Earths.  These  planets — at least the ones that have been found so far — tend to be a little big larger than Earth.

But not all hot super-Earths are likely to be hot Eyeball planets.  The hot Eyeball can only exist for a limited range of planetary conditions.  A planet with too thick of an atmosphere has too strong a greenhouse effect, melts its ice and gets fried.  There are a couple of other conditions that need to be met to be able to properly hot-Eyeball-it up (see here for the gory details).

I can’t realistically estimate what fraction of hot super-Earths have the right conditions to be hot Eyeballs.  Still, there are a few hundred billion hot super-Earths in our Galaxy.  Let’s be pessimistic and say that only 1 in 1000 of these has the right conditions.  There would still be a couple hundred million hot Eyeball planets in the Milky Way!  Not too shabby.  Statistically-speaking, there should be one in our immediate Galactic neighborhood (within about 100 light years).  People are actively looking for Hot Eyeball planets as we speak (see here), so stay tuned.


Life abounds in the “ring of life” on a hot Eyeball planet.  This includes an intelligent species (say, like us).  The story centers around the rituals that adolescents on this planet must experience.  The rites of passage.

There are rivers flowing from the night side of the planet, through the ring of life, onto the day side.  Each river flows across the day side until it becomes so hot that it evaporates.  Vegetation grows on the banks of each river, narrow green fingers threaded across the barren rocky landscape.

The first rite of passage is to take a trip down the river and make it back to the ring of life.  The rivers only flow in one direction, so the way back has to be by foot.  And you have to stay close to the river to have a chance to bear the heat.

The second rite involves an excursion onto the icy night side of the hot Eyeball.  The teenagers must find a sacred thermal spring in the vast icy plain and return with a sample of its mineral-infused water.  They must cross mountains and navigate the ice, all in the dark.

The final rite of passage is less dark (pun intended).  The ring of life provides an easy path for an “around the world” trip.  That’s a much more fun ritual!

There you have it: the hot Eyeball planet!  I have seen a couple of posts about hot Eyeball planets on sci-fi websites (see here and here), so I imagine there are sci-fi stories set on hot Eyeballs.  I would love to hear about any stories you know of.


23 thoughts on “Real-life Sci-Fi World #2: the Hot Eyeball planet

  1. Hi! Thanks for the article, I loved it! I do not have any stories about a Hot Eyeball Planet, yet. I am wanting to write one ever since reading about this kind of planets online. The story will be about a gigantic war going on, a war over The Ring Of Life (Which will also be the name of the story.) Everyone wants to live there, were the ground is fertile, food is plenty and life is easy. But too many people came to the planet, after a 21 year journey, the Ring became over crowded, and people were forced to live closer and closer to the deadly sides. The closer people came to the poles the harder life became until people became desperate, and desperate people are the most dangerous kind…

    Anyway, the story will be up on Wattpad.

  2. Hi Sean, just a few things,for an earth sized planet how wide do you estimate the ring of life to be? also the thought of living with 24 hrs of sun light doesn’t fill me with the joy’s of spring, if we assume we could build a mega structure to create a shadow,like Larry Nivens ring world, could we create a day/ night cycle?and if so how long would the ‘ night’ be?,as a layman i always find this sort of thing fascinating. Great website and many thanks.

  3. Hi Sean, great site! I’ve already bookmarked it. .

    Most of the action in my military science fiction novel Take the Shilling takes place on a world like this. Purchasing info at, or email me if you’d like a free ebook copy (epub or mobi).

    Another type of world that I’ve written about is habitable moons of gas giants. They’d be tidally locked to the gas giant but still have day/night cycles.

    Thanks again for a great site!

      1. Hi Sean,

        I think I got the hot eyeball concept mostly correct, but I forgot about the rotation of the planet. I just assumed there’d be one giant convection cell, with a uniform pattern of warm, high altitude winds to darkward and cold, low altitude winds to sunward.

        And I proposed “sunward,” “darkward,” “sunright,” and “sunleft” as more relevant directions than north, south, east, and west.

  4. Problem with this is, like everyone that talks about this but scientists, it does not account for tidal heating or ocean currents, let alone proper atmosphere circulation. Based on Dr. Yongyun Hu’s work alone, this model is incorrect. We should have a lobster-like spatial pattern, not a “ring”. Add in the rest, and that “ring” is much larger than most people imagine. Exactly HOW much and in what way… you tell me. I’ve been searching for that for months.

    1. I appreciate your comment, although I will gently point out that I *am* an actual astrophysicist. I have many colleagues who work in this field and I consult with them on issues like this one. The atmospheric and ocean dynamics of “eyeball planets” are not fully-solved problems as they depend on a lot of parameters that are hard to pin down and that will certainly vary from planet to planet. This paper is a good one explaining the main concepts (…554A..69L/abstract) but I know there are plenty of details to be worked out.

      1. There are indeed some broken links that I need to fix, and I appreciate you pointing out the paper proposing a lobster-like shape for the dayside hole in the ice. I’ll see what I can do…

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